Endocrinology and Nephrology
Systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disease can affect the kidneys, and vice versa, disorders can ensue on the basis of acute or chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease worldwide has been reported to be prevalent in 10% to 15% of the general population, and the treatment of patients with kidney disease represents a complex challenge. Endocrine disrupting chemicals including heavy metals may contribute to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. There is known considerable overlap between nephrology and endocrinology, borne by common pathophysiologic inter-relationships. Although the kidney plays a central role in body homeostasis, i.e., fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as regulatory control of blood pressure, one has to realize that it is not simply an excretory organ, as it exerts multiple endocrine functions, in fact, playing a significant role involving hormones involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, erythropoietin.