Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most usual trouble of diabetes, is the leading purpose of preventable visible impairment. In general, DR is clinically defined based on the observation of strange fundus vascular lesions, inclusive of microaneurysms, hemorrhages, tough exudates, and cotton wool spots. However, experimental and clinical research have shown that neurodegenerative changes, including lack of ganglion cells and glial reactivity, also are early events in the pathogenesis of DR. The lack of ganglion cells impacts retinal ganglion cell layer and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and decreased thickness of these layers has been detected in medical and animal research.